Company Financial Statement Analysis & Interpretation Of Financial Statements

vertical analysis example

Trend analysis helps you understand how your business has performed and predict where current business operations and practices will take you. Done well, it will give you ideas about how you might change things to move your business in the right direction. The following equation is used to analyze a financial statement using vertical analysis. Horizontal analysis, also called time series analysis, focuses on trends and changes in numbers over time.

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Another form of financial statement analysis used in ratio analysis is horizontal analysis or trend analysis. This method compares different items to a single item in the same accounting period. The base figure is total assets in case of balance sheet, total revenue in case of income statement and total net cash flow in case of a cash flow statement. In vertical analysis, each item in a financial statement is expressed as a percentage of some base item. When analyzing a balance sheet vertically, all accounts are listed as a percentage of total assets.

How Do You Explain Horizontal Analysis?

By conducting a horizontal analysis, you can tell what’s been driving an organization’s financial performance over the years and spot trends and growth patterns, line item by line item. Ultimately, horizontal analysis is used to identify trends over time—comparisons from Q1 to Q2, for example—instead of revealing how individual line items relate to others. Accountants, investors, and business owners regularly review income statements to understand how well a business is doing in relation to its expected performance, and use that understanding to adjust their actions. A business owner whose company misses targets might, for example, pivot strategy to improve in the next quarter. Similarly, an investor might decide to sell an investment to buy into a company that’s meeting or exceeding its goals. You’ll be able to compare the evolution of financial statements between different years of the current and noncurrent assets and liabilities.

Similarly, the above analysis shows the relative size of each item of the asset as a percentage of total assets and each item of liability section is presented as a percentage of total liabilities and equity. From the analysis made, it can be concluded that the percentage of total liabilities had decreased in the year 2008 from the year 2007. The percentage of total equity had increased in the year 2008 from its previous year, and the relative size of each asset had increased in the year 2008 from the year 2007. It helps in determining the effect of each line item in the income statement on the profitability of the company at each level, such as gross margin, operating income margin, etc. In case there is a sudden increase in the relative size of any of the line items, then the change can be captured easily by the vertical analysis of the income statement.

Relationship Between Total Asset Turnover & Capital Intensity Ratio

It does not help take a firm decision owing to a lack of standard percentage or ratio regarding the components in the balance sheet and income statement. Method is one of the easiest methods of analyzing the financial statement.

vertical analysis example

Of course, this vertical analysis must be complemented with others such as horizontal analysis. The latter will provide us with information regarding solvency or liquidity, among others. Once all these calculations have been made, a financial economic report of the company can be issued. These analyzes can be done with a spreadsheet, although many management programs usually include them.

What Does Vertical Analysis Of A Balance Sheet Tell About A Company?

The key to analysis is to identify potential problems provide the necessary data to legitimize change. Vertical Analysis – compares the relationship between a single item on the Financial Statements to the total transactions within one given period. The more periods you have to compare, the more robust your data set will be, and the more useful the insights gathered. Thus, it will be best not to use vertical analysis as a tool to get an answer, but use it to figure out what questions one may ask.

The balance sheet reveals the assets your company owns, the debts and other liabilities it owes and its obligations to you and your co-owners. Assets include the short-term assets of cash and accounts receivable and the long-term assets of property and equipment. Liabilities include accounts payables and lines of credit, which are short term, and mortgages and term loans, which are long term.

As it indicates the relative proportion of accounts, it is useful in identifying the cost centers that witness a sudden spike to negatively impact the profitability of a company. It helps in assessing the performance trend of a company across periods.

Income Statement Analysis

Vertical analysis expresses each amount on a financial statement as a percentage of another amount. Different organization statements can be compared as the comparison is made in percentage. The below vertical analysis example helps to understand the comparison. ExpensesOther expenses comprise all the non-operating costs incurred for the supporting business operations. Such payments like rent, insurance and taxes have no direct connection with the mainstream business activities. Top-down budgeting refers to a budgeting method where senior management prepares a high-level budget for the company. The company’s senior management prepares the budget based on its objectives and then passes it on to department managers for implementation.

vertical analysis example

The financial statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting. Vertical Analysis refers to the analysis of the financial statement in which each item of the statement of a particular financial year is analysed, by comparing it with a common item. In this analysis, the very first year is considered as the base year and the entities on the statement for the subsequent period are compared with those of the entities on the statement of the base period.

Double-check that that the total of liabilities and stockholders’ equity equals total assets and write “100%” next to the line item total. Common size analysis reveals that Sam’s cash balance decreased by 1.2% (5.3% – 4.1%) of his total assets. With a Horizontal Analysis, also, known as a “trend analysis,” you can spot trends in your financial data over time.

Key Differences Between Horizontal And Vertical Analysis

The amount shown in the vertical analysis will be of 33% since the $ 100,000 current asset corresponds to 33% of the total asset of $ 300,000 in the same period. It depicts the amount of change as a percentage to show the difference over time as well as the dollar amount. It also compares a company’s performance from one period to another (current year vs. last year). In general, an analysis of Financial Statements is vital for a person running a business. Because this analysis tells these business owners where they stand in their financial environment.

If a company has a gross sale amounting to $5 million in which $1 million represents the cost of goods sold, $2 million used for general expenses and a tax rate of 25%. As you can see, each account is referenced in proportion to the total revenue.


The changes are depicted both in absolute figures and in percentage terms. When creating a Vertical Analysis for a balance sheet, total assets are used as basis for analyzing each asset account. Total liabilities and stockholder’s equity is used as the basis for each liability and stockholder account.

You can find the balance sheets for public companies by searching the Securities and Exchange Commission database. Privately held companies often publish their financials in the investor relations section of their websites. It evaluates the evolution of balance sheet or income statement elements. Monthly, quarterly, or yearly comparative evolution are the most common in this analysis. Ratio Analysis – analyzes relationships between line items based on a company’s financial information.

What is Nayak Committee method?

This method was originally suggested by the P.J. Nayak Committee for the Small Scale Industries in India in need of working capital from banks. According to this method, the working capital requirement of the MSME unit is calculated at 25% of annual projected turnover.

The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 37.47%. The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 25.06%. Owing to the lack of consistency in the ratio of the elements, it does not provide a quality analysis of the financial statements. It is one of the popular methods of financial analysis as it is simple to implement and easy to understand. Also, the method makes it easier to compare the performance of one company against another, and also across industries.

Horizontal and vertical analysis are two main types of analysis methods used for this purpose. Vertical analysis is a method of financial statement analysis in which each line item is listed as a percentage of a base figure within the statement. Vertical analysis helps in comparing the performance and financial position of two businesses of different size. A vertically analyzed financial statement may be visually presented in a pie chart. Such a pie chart of a balance sheet may show items such as current and non-current assets and liabilities and owners’ equity. Usually, vertical analysis is performed for single period but occasionally it may be performed for two or more consecutive periods to understand how items changed over time as percent of base figure. Vertical analysis is used to show the relative size of each item line of the income statement and the balance sheet.

  • But on this page you have not given the vertical analysis of current assets section and the statement of retained earnings.
  • This implies that the new money invested in marketing was not as effective in driving sales growth as in prior years.
  • Assets include the short-term assets of cash and accounts receivable and the long-term assets of property and equipment.
  • How to do comparative balance sheet when 3 years information is given ..
  • The financial statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting.
  • E.g. HGY Company’s income statement for the year ended 2016 is shown below along with the financial results for the year 2015.
  • Comparing these numbers to historical figures can help you spot sudden shifts.

The amount shown in the horizontal analysis will be of 200%, since ”Year 2” $ 10,000 of cash corresponds to 200% of the cash in ”Year 1”. The amount shown in the horizontal analysis will be of 100%, since ”Year 2” $ 5,000 of cash corresponds to 100% of the cash in ”Year 1”. When creating a Vertical Analysis of an Income Statement, the amounts of individual items are calculated as a percentage of Total Sales.

  • A total of $560 million in selling and operating expenses, and $293 million in general and administrative expenses, were subtracted from that profit, leaving an operating income of $765 million.
  • An income statement shows the company’s revenues, which is the amount of money it made by selling its goods and services, and its expenses, which is the amount of money it spent to earn its revenues.
  • Example of the vertical analysis of the financial statement, which shows the total in amount and percentage.
  • Examining sales patterns to see if sales are declining because of specific customers or products or sales regions; Examining expenses report claims for proof of fraudulent claims.

This type of analysis eliminates differences that could exist due to size. Like horizontal analysis, vertical analysis is used to mine useful insights from your financial statements. It can be applied to the same documents, but is exclusively percentile-based and travels vertically within each period across periods, rather than horizontally across periods. When you use total assets in the denominator, look at each balance sheet item as a percentage of total assets. For example, if total assets equal $500,000 and receivables are $75,000, receivables are 15 percent of total assets. If accounts payable total $60,000, payables are 12 percent of total assets.

  • The items on the income statement are presented as a percentage of total revenue, and the items of the balance sheet are presented as a percentage of total assets or total liabilities.
  • On an income statement you conduct vertical analysis by converting each line into a percentage of gross revenue.
  • Perhaps you have a costly loyalty program in place, or you have launched a new media campaign that is diverting more resources into your Sales & Marketing department.
  • Vertical analysis provides the relative annual changes within an organization while horizontal analysis focuses on the fluctuation of a specific figure during a set time frame.
  • To create common-size measures, which enable them to compare and contrast amounts of different magnitudes in a very efficient manner.

Investigating these changes could help an analyst know if the company is shifting to a different business model. Vertical Analysis is one of the financial analysis methods with the other two being Horizontal Analysis and Ratio vertical analysis example Analysis. Under vertical analysis (or common-size analysis), one lists each line item in the financial statement as a percentage of the base figure. For instance, showing selling expenses as the percentage of gross sales.

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Cost Of Goods SoldThe Cost of Goods Sold is the cumulative total of direct costs incurred for the goods or services sold, including direct expenses like raw material, direct labour cost and other direct costs. However, it excludes all the indirect expenses incurred by the company. Peggy James is a CPA with over 9 years of experience in accounting and finance, including corporate, nonprofit, and personal finance environments. She most recently worked at Duke University and is the owner of Peggy James, CPA, PLLC, serving small businesses, nonprofits, solopreneurs, freelancers, and individuals. Sage 50cloud is a feature-rich accounting platform with tools for sales tracking, reporting, invoicing and payment processing and vendor, customer and employee management.

The two analysis are helpful in getting a clear picture of the financial health and performance of the company. When performing a Vertical Analysis of an Income Statement, Net Sales usually used as the basis for which all other items are compared.

What is another name for vertical analysis?

Definition: Vertical analysis, also called common-size analysis, is a financial analysis tool that lists each line item on the financial statements as a percentage of its total category.

However, it could also mean that for some reason you are lagging behind on Rooms revenue and that’s why your F&B department has a higher share of total revenue, which would be a warning sign. Static code analysis is a method of debugging by examining source code before a program is run. Static code analysis and static analysis are often used interchangeably, along with source code analysis.

Author: Kate Rooney

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